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فیلم و سریال - Movies and TV خارجی -- کمدی | کارتون کارتون کلاسیک رابین هود
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کارتون کلاسیک رابین هود کارتون کلاسیک رابین هود
تیتر اصلی: کارتون کلاسیک رابین هود
بخش خارجی -- کمدی , کارتون
سال: 1973
کشور: آمریکا
تاریخ ساخت: 83 زمان فیلم
شرح داستان:
The classic story of the bandit of Sherwood Forest is given a new twist-all the characters are animals. Robin Hood is a fox, as is Maid Marian. Little John is a very big bear, Friar Tuck is a badger, and Prince John is a scrawny lion who tries to usurp the throne and oppress the good citizens of Nottingham while his brother, King Richard, is away on the Crusades. It is only through the intervention of clever Robin Hood- and some robbing of the rich to give to the poor- that the kingdom is saved, and the good king can reclaim his throne.

Robin Hood (more Information)

Robin Hood may also refer to Robin Hood Airport Doncaster Sheffield.Robin Hood is the archetypal English folk hero; a courteous, pious and swashbuckling outlaw of the medieval era who, in modern versions of the legend, is famous for his robbing the rich to feed the poor and fighting against injustice and tyranny. He operates with his "seven score" (140 strong) group of fellow outlawed yeomen – named the Merry Men, meaning "companion or follower of [an]... outlaw",Merry. Online Etymological Dictionary. URL accessed June 6 2006. who were based in hideouts in Sherwood Forest and Barnsdale Forest near the city of Nottingham.
The chief nemesis of the Merry Men, in many of the stories surrounding the band, is the villainous Sheriff of Nottingham who is overtaxing the people into poverty, and in some tales the villain is Prince John, based on John of England. In some versions Robin Hood is said to have been a nobleman, the lord of Loxley, or Locksley (then the seat of Hallamshire, now in South Yorkshire) in the early medieval period who was deprived of his lands by corrupt churchmen and greedy law officials. Sometimes he is returning from the crusades to find the land pillaged by the sheriff. Historical records suggest Robin Hood was in fact born in Wakefield Yorkshire.

The people of present day Nottinghamshire have a great affinity with Robin Hood as their folklore hero; he is a symbol of the county. For example, major road signs entering the county show Robin Hood sporting his bow and arrow, welcoming people to 'Robin Hood County.' BBC Radio Nottingham also uses the phrase 'Robin Hood County' on its regular programmes.
In many tales, Robin Hood was said to have been Anglo Saxon and his enemies in authority were often said to be Norman; it is a historical fact that bitterness and conflict was still common amongst these communities over a century after the Norman Conquest (the former having been settled in England for far longer).

Today, Robin Hood is sometimes presented as the champion of people against taxers, sometimes as an egalitarian. In the stories Robin Hood also pursues other types of social justice. However, as mentioned below, Robin Hood was not quite so generous in the original medieval ballads, in which he is often seen as an arrogant and headstrong rebel who isn't adverse to blood-letting, and was more than a little fearsome an opponent for his enemies. Furthermore, even within the band, equality was not even looked for; Robin's men, in ballads, kneel before him, and in A Gest of Robyn Hode, the king observed, "His men are more at his byddynge/Then my men be at myn." In the end, since most events in the various Robin Hood stories are folklore, arguments over the "real" or "true" Robin Hood are unlikely to reach any conclusion. Even if a historical Robin Hood or a similar person did indeed exist, finding concrete evidence about his life is highly improbable.

Evolution of the Robin Hood legend

Robin Hood are apocryphal, verging on the mythical. The modern image widely held today contrasts in many ways with the medieval legend, the latter being far grittier and bloodier than most modern audiences would recognize. The modern Robin Hood was created by 16th and 17th century dramatists and writers, while the early medieval Robin Hood of Wakefield, was elaborated on in the creation of wandering minstrels, and is a more elusive yet realistic figure.

Historical references

Outlaws, thieves and bandits were often referred to as "Robin Hoods" as early as the 1200s.

The first appearance of the "bold outlaw" himself in a surviving manuscript is in William Langland's Piers Plowman (1377) in which Sloth, the lazy priest, boasts "I ken [know] 'rimes of Robin Hood." The next notice is in Wyntown's Scottish Chronicle, written about 1420, where the following lines occur – without any connection, and in the form of an entry – under the year 1283:

Lytil Jhon and Robyne Hude Wayth-men ware commendyd gude: In Yngil-wode and Barnysdale Thai oysyd all this tyme thare trawale.

In 1439, a petition was presented to Parliament against one Piers Venables of Aston, in Derbyshire, "who having no liflode, ne sufficeante of goodes, gadered and assembled unto him many misdoers, beynge of his clothynge, and, in manere of insurrection, wente into the wodes in that countrie,
like as it hadde be Robyn Hude and his meyne."â€"Rot. Parl. v. 16. This is the first portrayal of Robin Hood as an antihero, which would stick with him to the 17th century, when Guy Fawkes and his associates were described as "Robin Hoods" by Robert Cecil.

The first mention of a historical Robin Hood is in a passage of the "Scotichronicon," written partly by John Fordun between 1377 and 1384, and partly by his pupil Walter Bower, in about 1450, who largely interpolated the work of his master. Among his interpolations is a passage translated as follows. It is inserted immediately after Fordun's account of the defeat of Simon de Montfort and the punishments inflicted on his adherents:

At this time, [sc. 1266,] from the number of those who had been deprived of their estates arose the celebrated bandit Robert Hood, (with Little John and their accomplices,) whose achievements the foolish vulgar delight to celebrate in comedies and tragedies, while the ballads upon his adventures sung by the jesters and minstrels are preferred to all others.

According to
The Annotated Edition of the English Poets - Early ballads (London, 1856, p.70):

His death is stated by Ritson to have taken place on the 18th of November, 1247, about the eighty-seventh year of his age; but according to the following inscription found among the papers of the Dean of York, and quoted from the Appendix to Thoresby's Ducatus Leodiensis, by Mr. Gutch... the death occurred a month later. In this inscription, which bears evidence of high antiquity, Robin Hood is described as Earl of Huntingtonâ€"his claim to which title has been as hotly contested as any disputed peerage upon record.

:
Hear undernead dis laitl stean::''Lais Robert Earl of Huntingtun::''Near arcir der as hie sa geud::''An pipl kauld im Robin Heud::''Sic utlaws as hi an is men::''Vil England nivr si agen.::Obiit 24 Kal Dekembris 1247

This inscription also appears on a grave in the grounds of Kirklees Priory near Kirklees Hall (ironically in Calderdale) and close to Brighouse, West Yorkshire. Not surprisingly this is regarded as Robin Hood's grave (see below). The language of this inscription is questionable, though: it has the semblance of faked antiquity, and is easily readable as phonetic modern English. The first recorded mention of the Huntington title in association with Robin Hood appears to be the 1598 play
The Downfall of Robert, Earl of Huntington'' by Anthony Munday.

Ballads and tales

Printed versions of Robin Hood ballads appear in the early 16th century, shortly after the advent of printing in England. In these ballads, Robin Hood is a yeoman which, by that time, meant an independent tradesman or farmer. It is only in the late 16th century that he becomes a nobleman, the Earl of Huntington, Robert of Locksley, or later still, Robert Fitz Ooth.

His romantic attachment to Maid Marian (or "Marion", later confused with a woman named Matilda) is also a product of this later period and probably has something to do with the French pastoral play of about 1280, the Jeu de Robin et Marion. Aside from the names, there is no recognizable Robin Hood connection to the play. However, they were both associated with May festivities, as Friar Tuck was; although at one time they were two distinct possibilities â€" Alexander Barclay, about 1500, wrote of "some merry fytte of Maid Marian or else of Robin Hood" â€" they were soon joined in one play. She did not gain the undisputed role of Robin's sweetheart for some time; in Robin Hood's Birth, Breeding, Valor and Marriage, his love is Clorinda the Queen of the Shepherdesses, but Clorinda has vanished, except as a sometimes disguise of Marian.

The late 16th century is also the period when the Robin Hood story is moved back in time to the 1190s, when King Richard was absent from his throne, fighting in the crusades. (See Mair, Historia Majoris Britanniae). One of the original Robin Hood ballads refers to King Edward (Edward I, II, and III ruled England from 1272 to 1377). The idea of Robin Hood as a high-minded Saxon fighting Norman Lords originates in the 19th century, (see e.g. Thierry, Histoire de la Conquête de l'Angleterre par les Normands, livr. xi) most notably in the part Robin Hood plays in Sir Walter Scott's Ivanhoe (1819), chapters 40 - 41, where the familiar modern Robin Hood — "King of Outlaws and prince of good fellows!" as Richard the Lionheart calls him — makes his debut.

The folkloric Robin Hood was deprived of his lands by the villainous Sheriff of Nottingham and became an outlaw. The Sheriff does indeed appear in the early ballads (Robin kills and beheads him), but there is nothing as specific as this allegation (n.b. one historical contender for this villain may be William de Wendenal). Indeed, other ballads recount other reasons; in Robin Hood's Progress to Nottingham, Robin kills royal foresters who mocked him and so becomes an outlaw. Robin's other enemies include the rich abbots and a bounty hunter named Guy of Gisbourne, whom Robin kills and beheads as well. The early ballads contain nothing about giving to the poor, although Robin does make a large loan to an unfortunate knight.

In the ballads, the original "Merry Men" (though not called that) included:Will Scarlet (or Scathlock), Much the Miller's Son, and Little John — who was called "little" as a joke, as he was quite the opposite. Even though the band is regularly described as being over a hundred men, usually only three or four are named. Some appear only once or twice in a ballad: Will Stutly in Robin Hood Rescuing Will Stutly and Robin Hood and Little John; David of Doncaster in Robin Hood and the Golden Arrow; and Arthur a Bland in Robin Hood and the Tanner. Many later adapters developed these characters. Maid Marian and Friar Tuck joined from May festivities in the sixteenth century or so. Still later, the minstrel Alan-a-Dale, who narrates Robin's adventures in song, first appeared in a seventeenth century broadside ballad, and unlike many of the characters thus associated, managed to adhere to the legend.

The ballads of the 1700's include many stories about Robin being severely "drubbed" by many English craftsmen, including a potter, a tanner, a tinker, and a ranger. This makes one wonder why the Sheriff is having such a rough time catching Hood! Many of these tales made it into Howard Pyle's famous version. On the other hand, the ballads often showed him acting with great shrewdness. The tinker only managed to fight with Robin after Robin had stolen his money and a warrant (for Robin) that he carried. The potter sells him his wares, and Robin uses them to rob the sheriff of a large sum. In Robin Hood's Golden Prize, Robin disguises himself as a friar and tricks two priests out of money. Even when he is defeated, he usually tricks his foe into letting him sound his horn; his merry men put an end to the fight. When his foes are too cunning for that, he persuades them to drink with him instead.

Literary references to Robin Hood continued – in As You Like It, the exiled duke and his men "live like the old Robin Hood of England" – and he began to appear in literary works. Ben Jonson began a play, The Sad Shepheard, or a Tale of Robin Hood [1], a satire of Puritanism; John Keats wrote Robin Hood. To A Friend [2]; Sir Walter Scott put Robin Hood in Ivanhoe; and Alfred Lord Tennyson wrote a play The Foresters, or Robin Hood and Maid Marian [3]. In a spirit of merry anachronism, T. H. White featured Robin and his band in The Sword in the Stone, a tale of King Arthur's childhood.

Many versions of Robin Hood are presented in the Victorian era, often cut for children, as in Howard Pyle's Merry Adventures of Robin Hood. These set a firm stamp on his role as a man who takes from the rich to give to the poor, but the adventures are still local in scope. While Richard's going to the Crusades is mentioned, Robin plays no role against Prince John, and no part in raising the ransom to free him. These development ensued in the twentieth century.

The Robin Hood legend evolved steadily over time from humble beginnings as an ordinary rogue to a national hero of epic proportions, who not only supported the poor by taking from the rich, but still heroically defended the King of England when his own brother (the scheming Prince John) plotted to usurp the throne from his exile in France during Richard's absence from England when Richard was attending the Crusades.

Connections to existing locations

In modern versions of the legend, Robin Hood is said to have taken up residence in the verdant Sherwood Forest in the county of Nottinghamshire. This is a matter of some considerable contention. The original ballads speak of his being in Barnsdale (the area between Pontefract and Doncaster), some fifty miles north of Sherwood in the county of Yorkshire. This is reinforced for some by the similarity of Locksley to the area of Loxley in Sheffield, where in nearby Tideswell, which was the "Kings Larder" in the Royal Forest of the Peak, a record of Robert de Lockesly in court is found, perhaps in his retirement years in 1245. Although it cannot be proved this is the man himself, it is believed he had a brother called Thomas, which gives credence to the following reference:

24) No. 389, f0- 78. Ascension Day, 29 H. III., Nic Meverill, with John Kantia, on the one part, and Henry de Leke. Henry released to Nicolas and John 5 m. rent, which he received from Nicolas and John and Robert de Lockesly for his life from the lands of Gellery, in consideration of receiving from each of them 2 M. only, the said Henry to live at table with one of them and to receive 2 m. annually from the other. T., Sampson de Leke, Magister Peter Meverill, Roger de Lockesly, John de Leke, Robert fil Umfred, Rico de Newland, Richard Meverill. (25) No. 402, p. 80 b. Thomas de Lockesly bound himself that lie would not sell his lands at Leke, which Nicolas Meveril had rendered to him, under a penalty of L40. (40 marks)

In Barnsdale Forest there is at least one Robin Hood's Well (by the side of the Great North Road), one Little John's Well (near Hampole) and a Robin Hood's stream (in Highfields Wood at Woodlands).

There is something of a modern movement amongst Yorkshire residents to re-confirm the legend of Robin Hood, to the extent that South Yorkshire's new airport, on the site of the redeveloped RAF Finningley airbase near Doncaster, has been given the name Robin Hood Airport Doncaster Sheffield.

There has long been a pub in the village of Hatfield Woodhouse, quite close to the airport, which is known as The Robin Hood and Little John. Centuries ago, a variant of 'as plain as the nose on your face' was 'Robin in Barnesdale stood.'

Robin Hood Tree aka Sycamore Gap, Hadrian's Wall, UK. This location was used in the 1991 movie Robin Hood: Prince of Thieves.

This debate is hardly surprising, given the considerable value that the Robin Hood legend has for local tourism. One of Nottinghamshire's biggest tourist attractions is the Major Oak, a tree that local folklore claims was the home of the legendary outlaw. There is debate as to whether the tree is old enough: some think its age has been exaggerated, especially as it may be two or more trees fused together, which may have been caused by coppicing. The Sheriff of Nottingham also had jurisdiction in Derbyshire that was known as the "Shire of the Deer", and this is where the Royal Forest of the Peak is found, which roughly corresponds to today's Peak District National Park. The Royal Forest included Bakewell, Tideswell, Castleton, Ladybower and the Derwent Valley near Loxley. The Sheriff of Nottingham possessed property near Loxley, including Hazlebadge Hall, Peveril Castle and Haddon Hall. Mercia, to which Nottingham belonged, came to within three miles of Sheffield City Centre. The supposed grave of Little John can be found in Hathersage, also in the Peak District.

Robin Hood himself is reputed to be buried in the grounds of Kirklees Priory near Brighouse in West Yorkshire. There is an elaborate grave there with the inscription referred to above. The story is that the Prioress was a relative of Robin's. Robin was ill and staying at the Priory where the Prioress was supposedly caring for him. However, she betrayed him, his health worsened, and he eventually died there.

Before he died, he told Little John (or possibly another of his Merry Men) where to bury him. He fired an arrow from his bow from the Priory window, and where the arrow landed was to be the site of his grave. The actual grave is within sight of the ruins of the Priory, and this lends credence to this version of Robin's life story.

The grave can be visited on occasional organised walks, organised by Calderdale Council Tourist Information office.

Further indications of the legend's connection with West Yorkshire (and particularly Calderdale) are noted in the fact that there are pubs called the Robin Hood in both nearby Brighouse and at Cragg Vale; higher up in the Pennines beyond Halifax, West Yorkshire. There is at least one village in West Yorkshire called Robin Hood, on the A61 between Leeds and Wakefield and close to Rothwell. With all these references to Robin Hood, it is not surprising that the people of both South Yorkshire and West Yorkshire lay some claim to Robin Hood, who, if he existed, could easily have roamed between Nottingham, Lincoln, Doncaster, and right into West Yorkshire. In those days, Sherwood Forest and Barnsdale Forest were probably all one vast forest affording plenty of cover for a band of outlaws.

Modern interpretations

Songs, plays, games, and, later, novels, musicals, films, and TV series have developed Robin Hood and company according to the needs of their times, and the mythos has been subject to extensive ideological manipulation. Maid Marian, for instance, something of a warrior maiden in early Victorian novels, was reduced in demeanour to passivity during the period of the women's suffrage movement. As the media power of the modern feminist movement gathered momentum, Marian reacquired an altogether more active role.

Robin Hood himself has been transformed from an "outlaw for venyson" with an occasional element of generosity with no particularly notable skill in archery – and no suggestion of political animosity – in the original tales, to a medieval Che Guevara, a deadly accurate master archer fighting a guerrilla war against Prince John, the Sheriff of Nottingham, and his vicious second, Guy of Gisbourne, on behalf of the oppressed and King Richard.

Libertarians and Classic Liberals have interpreted Robin Hood as a liberty seeking anti-government independent. In this phrasing, the power structure of the Sheriff and Prince John are representative of the government, while Robin Hood and the Merry Men are the rebellious everymen, with Friar Tuck as an ambivalent Church. Robin Hood returns taxes, confiscated goods and private property to their rightful owners, the common individual citizen in this reading.

An alternative interpretation can be found in Objectivism, which criticizes the conventional interpretation as it glorifies stealing from the rich to give to the poor – an act it considers morally reprehensible.

Robin Hood has become shorthand for a good-hearted bandit who steals from the rich to give to the poor. It is also a proverbial expression for somebody who takes other people's giveaways and gives them to people he or she knows who could use them. This can be called, "Robin Hood giving." Many countries and situations boast their own Robin Hood characters; the :Category:Robin Hood page tracks them.

An airport in South Yorkshire has been opened and named "The Doncaster Sheffield Robin Hood Airport".

Other trivia

*Dooh Nibor. Spelling "Robin Hood" backwards yields "Dooh Nibor"â€"a name that describes the reverse of Robin Hoodâ€"a government or politician who "stole from the poor to give to the rich" such as King John who was Robin's enemy.

Ballads

Ballads are the oldest existing form of the Robin Hood legends, although none of them are recorded at the time of the first allusions to him, and many are much later.
*A Gest of Robyn Hode
*Robin Hood and the Monk
*Robin Hood's Death
*Robin Hood and the Potter
*Robin Hood and the Butcher
*Robin Hood and the Curtal Friar
*The Jolly Pinder of Wakefield
*Robin Hood and the Tanner
*Robin Hood and the Tinker
*Robin Hood and the Newly Revived
*The Bold Pedlar and Robin Hood
*Robin Hood and the Prince of Aragon
*Robin Hood and the Scotchman
*Robin Hood and the Ranger
*Robin Hood's Delight
*Robin Hood's Progress to Nottingham
*Robin Hood Rescuing Three Squires
*Robin Hood Rescuing Will Stutly
*Robin Hood and the Bishop
*Robin Hood and the Bishop of Hereford
*Robin Hood and Queen Katherine
*Robin Hood's Chase
*Robin Hood's Golden Prize
*The Noble Fisherman
*Robin Hood's Birth, Breeding, Valor and Marriage
*The King's Disguise, and Friendship with Robin Hood
*Robin Hood and the Golden Arrow
*Robin Hood and the Valiant Knight
*A True Tale of Robin Hood

Books

Robin Hood by Paul Creswick, 1917. Particularly noted for its illustrator, N.C. Wyeth.
The Last Unicorn by Peter S. Beagle. An outlaw chief, Captain Cully of Greenwood Forest, is an aspiring Robin Hood, who even writes ballads celebrating himself. After taking another character for Mr. Child, he tries to get them collected, and to be reassured that they are real ballads, even if he wrote them himself. The magician Schmendrick conjures up the legendary band in order to escape Cully, and Cully's band of outlaws dissolve, chasing after the fantastic outlaws before them.
The Outlaws of Sherwood by Robin McKinley, 1988, a retelling in which Robin Hood is, in fact, the worst archer in his band, but whose shrewdness leads them through their dangers
Sherwood by Parke Godwin, 1992, and Robin and the King, 1993
The Sherwood Game by Esther Friesner, 1995, features Robin Hood and his merry man as computer programs, who do not let their lack of flesh and blood interfere with their ways.
*DC Comics published a Robin Hood comic book in the 1950s. The character of Robin, Batman's sidekick, was partly modelled on Robin Hood, as is explicitly stated in the prologue to the first appearance of the character in Detective Comics #38.

Movies and TV series

Fairbanks as Robin Hood in the 1922 film version.

*1908: Robin Hood and His Merry Men, first appearance of Robin Hood on the screen, a silent film directed by Percy Stow.
*1922: Robin Hood, starring Douglas Fairbanks in the first feature length version. Robin is an exuberantly athletic swashbuckler in this silent movie. Wallace Beery portrayed King Richard and Sam De Grasse played the villainous Prince John. Many critics believe this version, directed by Allan Dwan, remains definitive.
*1938: The Adventures of Robin Hood, starring Errol Flynn in the first talkie version. Flynn is a smarter, more articulate Robin Hoodâ€"very aware of the proto-fascist regime he is fighting and the hard times of people around him in this darker story. Maid Marian accuses Robin: "You speak treason!" "Fluently," he replies. It is considered a classic of the adventure genre.
*1939 Robin Hood Makes Good, a Chuck Jones animated cartoon, where a young squirrel wants to play Robin Hood, but two older squirrels and hungry fox stand in his way.
*1946: Bandit of Sherwood Forest
*1948: The Prince of Thieves
*1949: Rabbit Hood, a Chuck Jones animated cartoon where Bugs Bunny takes on the Sheriff and is stunned to be greeted by Robin Hood as played by Errol Flynn.
*1951: Tales of Robin Hood
*1952: The Story of Robin Hood and His Merrie Men and Miss Robin Hood
*1953: Patrick Troughton becomes the first actor to play the part on television when he stars in the six-part series Robin Hood on the BBC Television Service. The half-hour episodes are shown in the Children's Television strand from March 17 to April 21.Vahimagi, Tise. British Television: An Illustrated Guide. Oxford. Oxford University Press / British Film Institute. 1994. ISBN 0-19-818336-4. (Page 42).
*1955 - 1960: The British Adventures of Robin Hood TV series (consisting of weekly half-hour episodes, also shown in the U.S.) starring Richard Greeneâ€"episodes of which were written by blacklisted Hollywood writersâ€"also has a high degree of social consciousness. Some of those episodes were combined into feature-length colorized films:
*Robin Hood's Greatest Adventures (1956) (also starring Donald Pleasence)
*Robin Hood, the Movie (1958)
*Robin Hood: The Quest for the Crown (1958)
*Sword of Sherwood Forest (1960) (In this version, Richard Greene was the only actor to reprise his role from the TV series. Featured Peter Cushing as the Sheriff of Nottingham.)
*1958: Robin Hood Daffy, a Chuck Jones animated cartoon, where Daffy Duck takes on the traditions of Errol Flynn, and a Friar Tuck-ish Porky Pig refuses to take him seriously.
*1964 : Robin and the Seven Hoods, a Frank Sinatra/Dean Martin and fellow Rat Pack spoof set in Prohibition Chicago
*1967: A Challenge for Robin Hood, a Hammer version, with Barrie Ingham as Robin
*1967: Rocket Robin Hood, a space-age version of the Robin Hood legend, where he and his band of Merry Spacemen live in the year 3000 on Sherwood Asteroid and fight the evil Sheriff who rules the space territory of N.O.T.T. (Trillium / Steve Krantz Production)
*1968: Pinkcome Tax, an Arthur Davis animated cartoon, where the Pink Panther takes on the role of a Merry Man, and unsuccessfully tries to free a poor man from jail.
Robin_Hood1.png

Robin Hood in the 1973 Disney movie, the most famous animated version of the legend.

*1973: Walt Disney Productions produced the most famous animated version of the legend, which had the various characters depicted as anthropomorphic animal characters, such as Robin Hood and Maid Marian as foxes. See: Robin Hood (1973 film).
*1975: The Legend of Robin Hood, a BBC miniseries starring Martin Potter in the title role. The six-episode adaptation was aired on public television in the U.S. in the later 1970s.
*1975: When Things Were Rotten, a comedy TV series produced by Mel Brooks and starring Richard Gautier, Bernie Kopell and Misty Rowe.
*1975: Robin Hood's Arrows (Strely Robin Guda, Стрелы Робин Ð"уда), a Russian adaptation by Sergey Tarasov, starring Boris Khmelnitsky as Robin Hood, with songs of Vladimir Vysotsky.
*1976: In Robin and Marian, Sean Connery and Audrey Hepburn played the couple at the end of their lives in a revisionist version of the story.
*1981: Time Bandits, starring John Cleese, Sean Connery, rhelley Duvall; written and Directed by Terry Gilliam had a short spoof of the Robin Hood legend, with Robin being portrayed as an upper class twit.
*1983: The Ballad of the Valiant Knight Ivanhoe (Ballada O Doblestnom Rytsare Ayvengo, Баллада о доблестном рыцаре Айвенго), a Russian adaptation of Sir Walter Scott's Ivanhoe by Sergey Tarasov, with songs of Vladimir Vysotsky, starring Boris Khmelnitsky as Robin Hood, who helps Ivanhoe to restore Richard's kingdom.
*1984: The made-for-TV spoof The Zany Adventures of Robin Hood (1984) starred George Segal (Robin), Morgan Fairchild (Marian), Roddy McDowall (Prince John), and Janet Suzman (Queen Eleanor of Aquitaine), and Robert Hardy turned up at the end as King Richard.
*19841986: The 1980s British series Robin of Sherwood, aka Robin Hood, was a New Age fantasy starring Michael Praed as Robin, later replaced by Jason Connery (son of Sean Connery) as Robert, called Robin. In this version the two Robins actually get to wear hoods occasionally. The series set the template for most of the adaptations that followed, most notably the introduction of a Muslim outlaw.
*19891994: The British children's TV show Maid Marian and her Merry Men rewrote the legend somewhat, with Marian as the dynamic leader of the resistance against Prince John, Robin as her thick-headed, buffoonish figurehead, and Nottingham as John's put-upon, sarcastic enforcer.
*1990: Animated series Young Robin Hood, developed by Belgian studio Cinar, tells a version of the story in which Robin and his men, as well as Maid Marian, are teenagers. This version also incorporates several fantasy elements. For example, Robin is sometimes assisted by a forest-dwelling old woman who knows magic. This cartoon aired in America as part of a block of adventure themed Saturday morning cartoons, and until recently ran in reruns on Boomerang.
*1990: Animated series Robin Hood no Dai Boken - ロãƒ"ンフッドの大å†'険 (Japanese title), developed by Japanese studio Tatsunoko Productions, tells a version of the story in which Robin and his men (and women), as well as Maid Marian, are - in majority - kids. This version also incorporates several fantasy elements, mainly expressed in mystic powers of the nature and a powerful treasure protected by the forest Sherwood itself. The whole series contains strong environmental messages.
*1991: Robin Hood, starring Patrick Bergin and Uma Thurman, is an inventive use of some of the best of the Robin Hood heritage.

Captain Picard as Robin Hood in the Star Trek episode Q-pid

*1991: In Robin Hood: Prince of Thieves, Kevin Costner played the outlaw and Sean Connery performed the customary cameo appearance of King Richard in the finale.
*1991: Star Trek: The Next Generation episode Q-pid features the crew being forced to play out a real-Robin Hood tale (Captain Picard, played by Patrick Stewart, as Robin Hood) when Q recreates it.
*1993: The Mel Brooks spoof Robin Hood: Men in Tights recycles bits from his short-lived late-1975 Robin Hood TV sitcom When Things Were Rotten. Cary Elwes plays Robin in the movie, and Patrick Stewart appears in the ending, spoofing Sean Connery's take on King Richard the Lionheart (even speaking in a light Scottish accent).
*1996: Robin of Locksley was a made for TV movie starring Devon Sawa as a modern teenage Robin attending a prep school with the snobbish John Prince.
*1996: Wishbone plays Robin Hood in the episode "Paw Prints of Thieves", to portray Joe's fight to give leftover food to a homeless shelter, even if it's against regulations.

Wishbone as Robin Hood in "Paw Prints of Thieves"(1996)

*1997: The France-U.S. TV series The New Adventures of Robin Hood starred Matthew Porretta as a black-leather-clad Robin, and John Bradley. The tone of the series resembled its contemporaries Hercules: The Legendary Journeys and Xena: Warrior Princess. Porretta had appeared as Will Scarlet O'Hara in Men in Tights.
*1999: The children's series Back To Sherwood featured a teenage descendent of Robin (Robyn Hood) who discovers she has the power to travel back in time, and joins with the children of her ancestor's band (Joan Little, Phil Scarlet, etc.)
*1999: The Blackadder Millennium Special Back And Forth featured Lord Flasheart (Rik Mayall) as Robin Hood, with Kate Moss as Maid Marion. In his role, he proclaims his Merry Men have "strong muscle tone and are not gay!"
*2001: Robin Hood and the Merry Men make a memorable cameo appearance as unwelcome rescuers in the movie version of William Steig's Shrek. Here, they speak with French accents, partake in Irish step-dancing, and are defeated by a girl.
*2001: Robin Hood's heroic daughter, Gwyn, Keira Knightley on horseback with bow in hand, takes over her father's role and comes to his rescue in the made for TV movie Princess of Thieves.
*2006: Robin Hood, a new thirteen-episode television series produced by Tiger Aspect for BBC One, is due to air in the UK. Jonas Armstrong stars in the title role.

Appearance in other arts

Music

Composer Robert Steadman, who lived for some time in Nottingham, has written 2 musical compositions using the myths of Robin Hood:
* The Dethe of Robyn Hood (1995) uses fragments of a medieval ballad as its text and is scored for narrator and wind band.
* Robin Hood & Little John (2005) was commissioned by Southwell Choral Society as was premiered by them in Southwell Minster. It sets an anonymous medieval ballad about the first meeting of Robin Hood and Little John and is scored for choir and large ensemble.
* Sherwood (2005) is a rock band from San Luis Obispo, California, who took their name from Sherwood Forest, where Robin Hood had his adventures.
* "Robin Hood" by Louis Prima and Bob Miketta (1944) also recorded by Prima.
* "The Sheriff of Noddingham", a surfing instrumental by David Marks, one time member of the Beach Boys.
* "Desolation Row," a 1965 song by Bob Dylan, includes the following lyrics:

"Einstein, disguised as Robin Hood:With his memories in a trunk:Passed this way an hour ago:With his friend, a jealous monk."
* The 1973 Disney animated film included three original songs: "Whistle Stop", a mostly instrumental piece, and "Not in Nottingham", both written and performed by Roger Miller, and "The Phony King of England", performed by Phil Harris.

Video games

* Cinemaware's classic 1986 title Defender of the Crown featured Robin Hood as one of the player's allies in the struggle to re-conquer England.
* In 2003, Defender of the Crown was re-mastered and re-released as Robin Hood: Defender of the Crown.
* Robin Hood was also the protagonist in the 1991 Sierra Online adventure game, Conquests of the Longbow .
* Other Robin Hood-themed video games are listed on MobyGames.
* Code Masters 1985 action platformer by the Oliver twins, Super Robin Hood
* The historically influenced video game "Gengis Khan II" by Koei featured Robin Hood as a character that would offer to enlist as a general in the player's service, provided that England is part of the player's kingdom.
* An NES game based on the Kevin Costner film "Robin Hood: Prince of Thieves" was released.
* In 2002/2003 a strategy game entitled "Robin Hood: Legend of Sherwood" by Wanadoo, Strategy First and Spellbound Studios, was released. It featured many of the Merry Men listed above.
* In Shrek SuperSlam, a fighting game released 2005, Robin Hood appears as a secret playable character.
* In Age of Empires II: The Age of Kings, the scenario editor includes many additional hero units such as Robin Hood, The Sheriff of Nottingham, and Friar Tuck. In the Gold Edition of Age of Empires II, the map "Sherwood Forest," a tree filled map within a forest setting is added. The map "Sherwood Heroes" is identical to "Sherwood Forest" but each player receives a "Robin Hood" and "Friar Tuck" hero.
** AOE II also includes an easter egg "Robin Hood" which when typed into a chat window gives the player 1000 gold.
RuneScape features the character "Robin," a master archer who resides in an inn in Port Phasmatys, having a role in the "Ghosts Ahoy" quest with a gambling addiction.
**There is also a Robin hood hat and boots in RuneScape.

Strategy games

* In previous editions of Warhammer Fantasy the Bretonnians had a special character called Bertrand the Brigand who was based on Robin Hood

Comic Books

As a public domain character with an established reputation, Robin Hood was an attractive feature for comic book publishers from the birth of the medium. The first continuing Robin Hood stories were written and drawn by Sven Elven and appeared in New Adventure Comics #23 through #30. There was also a Robin Hood back up story in Green Hornet #7 through #10, written by S. M. Iger.

A small renaissance of Robin Hood comics occurred in the late 1950s, starting with the little known "Rodger of Sherwood" stories in the Young Heroes anthology series #39 through #37 by American Comics Group That same year Robin got his first title comic book from Magazine Enterprises which ran for 8 issues. Brown Shoe Co. followed suit in 1956 with The Adventures of Robin Hood in 1956 which ran for 7 issues. Robin soon attracted attention from more established comic publishers such as Charlton Comics - who retitled Danger and Adventure to Robin Hood and His Merry Men starting with issue #28 - and Quality comics, whose Tales of Robin Hood was picked up by DC on issue #7, and eventually totaled 13 issues, the longest lasting English language Robin Hood series. DC also published Robin Hood stories in their Brave and the Bold anthology series from #5 to #15.

In the 1960s, Dell published a couple of Robin Hood one-shots, one a re-telling of the traditional legend, the other a Disney TV show tie-in. Then, in 1974, Gold Key Comics produced a 7 issue tie-in with the Disney animated film. Eclipse published a three-part miniseries in 1991, perhaps a tie in with the Kevin Costner film. Finally, there have been various one-shots produced by Moonstone Books, A-Plus Comics and Avalon Communications.

Robin Hood and his band appear in one issue of the Vertigo series Fables. Along with other folk heroes, they are part of a last-ditch effort to help folktale refugees escape an invading army and reach the mundane world.

Midnight Kiss, a comic written by UK writer Tony Lee for Markosia, uses the Robin Hood legend - specifically that Robin Hood's Silver Arrow is from Nuadha's silver hand - and is stolen by 'Maid MaryAnne' - one of the two main characters in a flashback sequence.

Tony Lee is currently writing a Graphic Novel called Robin Hood - Outlaw's Pride for Walker Books, out late 2007.

Robin has fared far better in non-English comics. His most successful title series is a Mexican histoiretta that ran from 1963 through 1966 and included 23 issues. There were also some Swedish titles.

Bibliography

*
*R.H. Hilton, "The Origins of Robin Hood", Past and Present, No. 14. (Nov., 1958), pp. 30-44. Available online at JSTOR.

See also

*Arthur a Bland
*Barnsdale
*Basil Fool for Christ - a Russian Saint with similar behaviour
*David of Doncaster
*Fulk FitzWarin
*Gilbert Whitehand
*Hereward the Wake
*Much the Miller's Son
*Nezumi Kozo
*Richard at the Lee
*The Robin Hood Battalion - a British Territorial Army unit.
*Robin Hood's Bay - a small fishing town in North Yorkshire
*Rummu Jüri
*Verysdale
*William de Wendenal
*Will Stutely

External links


*The Adventures of Robin Hood - fansite for the Errol Flynn movie.
*The Adventures of Robin Hood - entry from Whirligig TV about the TV series starring Richard Greene.
*:"A Gest of Robyn Hode" modern translation - An excellent translation into modern English of "A Gest of Robyn Hode", one of the best medieval ballads.
*BBC Drama - Robin Hood Revealed - news on the new BBC series set for Autumn 2006.
*BBC History: Robin Hood and his Historical Context
*Ben Turner's Robin Hood Compilation
*Britain Express: Robin Hood
*Channel 4 History - In the footsteps of Robin Hood
*Discovery backs real Robin Hood
*Legends: The Robin Hood Pages
*The mystique of Brazil's Robin Hood
*Nottingham Robin Hood Pageant
*The Outlaw Robin Hood: His Yorkshire Legend
*New Adventures of Robin Hood - TV series Fan page
*Robin Hood by Henry Gilbert
* - the 1973 Walt Disney film.
*Robin Hood Bold Outlaw from Loxley - another extensive site by Graham Kirkby with emphasis on Loxley, South Yorkshire
*کارگردان:
Wolfgang Weitherman
بازیگران: Robin Hood, Little John, Maid Marian, Prince John, Sir Hiss, Friar Tuck
تعداد بازدید: 15404
رتبه: 6,78 (23 Voti)
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